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  1.as such和such as:
  (A)as such表示“就以这种身份或资格;就其本身而论;照这样”等意思,其中such是代词,其后不可再跟其他成分。例如:
  1)He is a teacher and I treat him as such.他是教师,我就按老师对待他。
  2)I didn't oppose the plan as such.就计划本身而言,我并不反对。
  3)If you are a League member,you must show yourself as such.如果你是一个团员,就得有个团员的样子。
  4)A leader,as such,deserves obedience.这样的一位领导人是值得服从的。
  5)It is not a good book as such,but it has some interestingpictures.它本身算不上是一本好书,但书中却有一些有趣的图画。
  6)He is not terribly interested in politics as such.他对政治本身并不特别关心。
  7)Will money as such bring you happiness?金钱本身会给你带来幸福吗?
  8)Names,as such,mean nothing.一个一个的姓名,本身并没有多大意义。
  (B)such as表示“例如;诸如此类的;像……那样的”等意思。suchas后面跟的只是一些例子,不是全部的人或物。前面提到三种事物,such as后面只能跟两种事物或一种事物,不能跟三种事物。(suchas前面常有逗号与中心词隔开,引导同位语)例如:
  1)Most nouns have a singular and a plural form,such as boyand boys.大多数名词都有单数形式和复数形式,例如boy和boys。
  2)His father knows four different languages,such as Englishand French.他父亲懂四种语音,譬如说英语和法语。
  3)I like drinks such as tea and coffee.我喜欢喝茶和咖啡一类的饮料。
  4)I require reference books,such as a grammar book and adictionary.我需要参考书,诸如语法书和词典。
  1)He gave me such a useful ballpen as I want.他给了我一支我正需要的那种有用的圆珠笔。(as在从句中作宾语)
  2)Here are such questions as are often asked by the students.这是些学生们常问的问题。(as在从句中作主语)
  3)We had such grapes as you never saw.我们有一些你从未见过的葡萄。(as在从句中作宾语)
  1)His illness was not such as to cause anxiety.他的病还不至于达到令人焦虑不安的程度。
  2)We are not such fools as to believe him.我们不会傻到相信他的程度。
  2.before long和long before:
  (A)before long表示“很快;不久”之意,其中before是介词,而long是名词。before long可与过去或将来时态的谓语动词连用。例如:
  1)My book will be published before long.我的书不久就要出版。
  2)I received his letter before long.我很快就收到了他的信。
  3)We'll see that film before long.我们不久就要看那部电影。
  4)Before long they found the lost paper.不久,他们就找到了丢失的文件。
  5)Before long she came running behind me.很快,她就跑着追我来了。
  (B)long before是“很久以前”之意。其中before为副词,long也是副词。一般用在谓语动词为过去完成时的句子里,有时也可用在谓语动词为一般过去时的句子中。例如:
  1)He said he had seen the film long before.他说他很久以前就看过这部电影。
  2)I told him I had been to Beijing long before.我告诉他,我很久以前就到过北京。
  3)I had known her long before.很久以前我就认识她了。
  4)She died long before the war.早在战前很久她就去世了。
  long before后面也可以跟从句。这时,before为连词。例如:
  1)I had heard about you long before I met you.与你见面之前我就久闻你的大名了。
  2)I had read the novel long before you read it.你看的这部小说我很久以前就看过了。
  3)I knew Mr Smith long before I knew you.早在认识你之前我就认识史密斯先生了。
  3.far from和from far:
  (A)far from是“远离;非常不;决不;非但不……反而”等意。作“非常不;决不”解时,其后跟形容词。作“非但不……反而”解时,其后跟动名词。例如:
  1)The city is far from here.城市离这里很远。
  2)They wandered far from home.她们远离家乡,四处流浪。
  3)Your work is far from(being)satisfactory.你的工作一点儿也不能令人满意。
  4)He is far from poor.他决不贫穷。
  5)Far from admiring his paintings,I dislike them intensely.我非但不钦佩,反而十分讨厌他的画。
  6)Far from praising him,I'll criticize him.我不但不会表扬他,反而要批评他。
  注:"far from it"是习语,意为“差得远;决不是那么一回事”。例如:
  I don't blame him-far from it.我不责备他,一点儿也不。
  (B)from far作“从远方”解,其中far是名词。例如:
  1)I received a letter from far.我收到一封远方的来信。
  2)The stranger has come from far.那个陌生人从远方来。
  4.if only和only if:
  (A)if only是“只要;要是;但愿”之意。if only作“只要”解时,重点在if,表示基本条件。if only作“要是;但愿”解时,其后的从句中用虚拟语气,表达说话人的愿望(或非真实条件)。例如:
  1)If only you study hard,you'll pass the exam.只要你努力学习,你考试一定会及格。
  2)If only you don't lose heart,you'll find a way to overcomethe difficulty.只要不灰心,你就能找到克服困难的办法。
  3)If only he were at home!他现在要是在家就好了![现在他没在家]
  4)If only I had seen him!那时要是我见到他就好了![那时我没见他]
  5)If only he arrives on time!但愿他按时到达![表示对将来的愿望]
  (B)only if是“只有”之意,重点在only。例如:
  1)Only if he does his best,he'll succeed.(=He will onlysucceed if he does his best.)他只有竭尽全力才会取得成功。
  1)Only if you promise him that you won't invite Mary,he willcome.(=He'll only come if you promise me that you won'tinvite Mary.)只有你答应不邀请玛丽,他才会来。
  5.too much和much too:
  (A)too much作“太多;过分;受不了”解,其中too作much的修饰语,表示超越much的正常程度。例如:
  1)You're asking too much.你问得太多了。
  2)He protested too much to be sincere.他反对得太多,不可能是真诚的。
  3)I cannot thank you too much.我无论怎样感谢你也不为过分。
  4)This experiment is too much for me.做这个实验我吃不消。
  (B)much too表示“实在太……”之意,用来修饰其后的形容词或副词,作状语用。其中much作too的修饰语,增加too的程度。例如:
  1)This coat is much too large for me.这件大衣我穿起来实在太大了。
  2)This box is much too heavy.这只箱子实在太重了。
  3)I'm much too tired to go out.我累得实在不能出去了。
  4)Our general manager is much too busy to see visitors.我们的总经理实在太忙,不能会见客人。
  6.as much和much as:
  (A)as much表示“同样多少的;同样的事物;同样的情况”之意。例如:
  1)I like tea,but I like coffee as much.我爱喝茶,也同样爱喝咖啡。
  2)Give me as much again.再给我那么多。
  3)Please help me get this job-you know I would do as muchfor you.求你帮我搞到这份工作——你要知道,我也会同样帮你办事的。
  (B)much as是“虽然,尽管,即使”之意,用来引导让步状语从句。much as=although/though。例如:
  1)Much as it was cold,I went swimming.尽管天冷,我还是去游泳了。
  2)Much as I like it,I can't afford it.尽管我很喜欢它,却买不起。
  3)Much as I hate to do it,I must stay home and study tonight.虽然我不喜欢那样做,但今晚还得呆在家里学习。
  4)Much as the new process has many advantages,there arestill some weak points in it.尽管这项新工艺有许多优点,但它本身还是存在某些弱点的。
  5)Much as I admire his courage,I don't think he acted wisely.我虽然佩服他的勇气,但我却认为他这样做并不明智。
  1.at table和at the table:
  (A)at table是“吃饭”之意。例如:
  1)They were at table when I got to his house.当我到他家时,他们正在吃饭。
  2)It is bad manners to blow your nose at table.吃饭时擤鼻涕是不礼貌的。
  (B)at the table是“在桌旁”之意。例如:
  They were sitting at the table playing cards.他们坐在桌旁玩纸牌。
  2.in charge of和in the charge of:
  (A)in charge of是“管理;照料;负责;主持”之意。主体是人。例如:
  1)Mr Wang is in charge of Class Two.王先生负责二班。
  2)The nurse was left in charge of the children.保姆留下来照料孩子们。
  3)Who is in charge of the money for safekeeping?谁负责保管这笔钱?
  4)The person in charge of the construction received us.工地的负责人接待了我们。
  (B)in the charge of是“由……照料(负责,管理)”之意。主体是被照料的物或人。例如:
  1)The documents are in the charge of Mr Liu.这些文件由刘先生保管。
  2)The girl was safely in the charge of a nurse.这个女孩由保姆照料,很安全。
  3)This operation is in the charge of Doctor Jackson.这次手术由杰克逊大夫负责。
  3.in front of和in the front of:
  (a)in front of(=before)是“在……前面”之意,指的是“在某个地方范围以外的前面”。例如:
  1)There is a bus-stop in front of our school.在我们学校前面有一个公共汽车停靠站。
  2)There are some trees in front of the house.房子前面有一些树。
  3)Oliver could scarcely see anything in front of him.奥利弗几乎看不见他前面的任何东西。
  4)Would you like to sit in front of us?请你坐在我们的前面好吗?
  5)We couldn't read the notice on the board because severalpeople were standing in front of it.我们看不到布告栏上贴的公告,因为有几个人正站在它前面。
  (B)in the front of表示“在……的前部”之意,指的是“在一个地方范围之内的前部”。例如:
  1)The teacher stands in the front of the classroom.教师站在教室的前部。
  2)The introduction is always in the front of the book.前言总是放在书的前部。
  3)She is sitting in the front of the car with the driver.她跟司机一起坐在车子的前部。
  4)The singer stood in the front of the stage.唱歌者站在舞台的前部。
  5.in word和in a word:
  (A)in word是“口头上;表面上”之意。例如:
  1)We should not serve the people in word.我们不应该只是在口头上为人民服务。
  2)He is faithful in word and deed.他一言一行都很忠实。
  (B)in a word是“总而言之;一句话”之意。例如:
  1)In a word,don't lose heart because of failure.总之,不要由于失败而灰心丧气。
  2)John is smart,polite,and well-behaved.In a word,he isadmirable.约翰聪明伶俐,彬彬有礼,行为端正,总之,他值得夸奖。
  6.in body和in a body:
  (A)in body是“亲自”之意。例如:
  1)I observed the incident in body.我亲眼目睹这个事件。
  2)He checked the report in body.他亲自审查这个报告。
  (B)in a body是“一道;一齐;全体一致地”之意。例如:
  1)They started off in a body.他们全体人员一道出发了。
  2)The students of our class marched in a body into the hall.我班同学全体走进礼堂。
  7.in care of和in the care of:
  (A)in care of是“由……转交”之意。例如:
  1)He wrote me in care of a friend of mine.他写的信由我的朋友转交给我。
  2)Send the money to me in care of the firm.此款由该公司转交给我。
  〔注〕in care of可缩写为c/o(由……转交)。
  (B)in the care of是“由……照顾/管理”之意。主体是被照顾的人或物。例如:
  1)The household is in the care of Mother.这一家人全由妈妈来照料。
  2)The documents are in the care of the secretary.这些文件由秘书来管理。
  8.in case of和in the case of:
  (A)in case of是“如果;万一;要是;以防;以备”之意。例如:
  1)In case of my absence,who will take my place?要是我不能来,谁将顶替我呢?
  2)In case of rain,the picnic will be put off.万一天下雨,野餐将推迟进行。
  3)Keep an umbrella in case of rain.带把雨伞以防下雨。
  (B)in the case of是“就……来说;至于;关于;提到”之意。例如:
  1)Poverty,in the case of John,was considered honourable.对于约翰来说,贫穷被当作荣誉来看待。
  2)In the case of a physical change,no new substance is formed.就物理变化而言,并不产生任何新的物质。
  9.out of question和out of the question:
  (A)out of question是“毫无疑问;肯定;不在话下;的确”之意。例如:
  1)It is out of question that he will pass the exam.毫无疑问,他考试会及格的。
  2)Your success is out of question.你肯定会成功的。
  3)It is out of question that he is my close friend.他无疑是我的亲密朋友。
  (B)out of the question是“不可能的;办不到的;不能考虑的”之意。例如:
  1)What you say is out of the question.你所说的是办不到的。
  2)To finish the work in two days is out of the question.两天内做完这项工作是不可能的。
  3)Before liberation,it was out of the question for childrenof poor parents to get an education.解放前,穷人的孩子受教育是不可能的。
  4)His plan is out of the question.他的计划根本不能考虑。
  5)She didn't study English,so it was out of the question forher to follow what the Englishman said.她没有学过英语,因此她根本不可能听懂那个英国人所说的话。
中学英语园地开封G381中学外语教与学孟国凯20032003孟国凯 浙江金华五中 作者:中学英语园地开封G381中学外语教与学孟国凯20032003

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